Total Pageviews

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Elite controlled, funded and eventual execution of trade agreement (content and associated plans) meeting (has substantial evidence found on the internet) occurred shortly before the "Cold War years"























The following words are from the title of the video (with link shown below): Operation Gladio part 2 (state-sponsored right-wing terrorist network)


This video is a recording of a Britiah Broascasting Corporation, (BBC) Inc. televised fact-based documentary aired June 1992.


The following words are taken/borrowed from the (url) link is shown below.


State terrorism refers to acts of terrorism which a state conducts against another state or against its own citizens.[1][2][3][4]

Definition

See also: Definition of terrorism and Terrorism
There is neither an academic nor an international legal consensus regarding the proper definition of the word "terrorism".[5][6] Some scholars believe the actions of governments can be labelled "terrorism".[7] Using the term 'terrorism' to mean violent action used with the predominant intention of causing terror, Paul James and Jonathan Friedman distinguish between state terrorism against non-combatants and state terrorism against combatants, including 'shock and awe' tactics:

Shock and Awe" as a subcategory of "rapid dominance" is the name given to massive intervention designed to strike terror into the minds of the enemy. It is a form of state-terrorism. The concept was however developed long before the Second Gulf War by Harlan Ullman as chair of a forum of retired military personnel.[8]

However, others, including governments, international organisations, private institutions and scholars, believe the term is applicable only to the actions of violent non-state actors. Historically, the term terrorism was used to refer to actions taken by governments against their own citizens whereas now it is more often perceived as targeting of non-combatants as part of a strategy directed against governments.[9]

Historian Henry Commager wrote that "Even when definitions of terrorism allow for state terrorism, state actions in this area tend to be seen through the prism of war or national self-defense, not terror."[10] While states may accuse other states of state-sponsored terrorism when they support insurgencies, individuals who accuse their governments of terrorism are seen as radicals, because actions by legitimate governments are not generally seen as illegitimate. Academic writing tends to follow the definitions accepted by states.[11] Most states use the term "terrorism" for non-state actors only.[12]

The Encyclop√¶dia Britannica Online defines terrorism generally as "the systematic use of violence to create a general climate of fear in a population and thereby to bring about a particular political objective", and states that "terrorism is not legally defined in all jurisdictions." The encyclopedia adds that "[e]stablishment terrorism, often called state or state-sponsored terrorism, is employed by governments—or more often by factions within governments—against that government's citizens, against factions within the government, or against foreign governments or groups."[2]

While the most common modern usage of the word terrorism refers to civilian-victimising political violence by insurgents or conspirators,[13] several scholars make a broader interpretation of the nature of terrorism that encompasses the concepts of state terrorism and state-sponsored terrorism.[14] Michael Stohl argues, "The use of terror tactics is common in international relations and the state has been and remains a more likely employer of terrorism within the international system than insurgents.[15] Stohl clarifies, however, that "[n]ot all acts of state violence are terrorism. It is important to understand that in terrorism the violence threatened or perpetrated, has purposes broader than simple physical harm to a victim. The audience of the act or threat of violence is more important than the immediate victim."[16]

Scholar Gus Martin describes state terrorism as terrorism "committed by governments and quasi-governmental agencies and personnel against perceived threats", which can be directed against both domestic and foreign targets.[4] Noam Chomsky defines state terrorism as "terrorism practised by states (or governments) and their agents and allies".[17]

Stohl and George A. Lopez have designated three categories of state terrorism, based on the openness/secrecy with which the alleged terrorist acts are performed, and whether states directly perform the acts, support them, or acquiesce in them.[18]


No comments: